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Supplementary notes file (European Standard Card)
Note:..1: Two-over-one Responses: 1D-2C and 1M-2x
A 2/1 response is forcing-to-game except where responder rebids his suit simply after opener has not promised extra values.
Thus: 1D-2C; 2D-3D and 1D-2C; 3C are forcing.
Note:..2: Jump shifts (JS)
A simple jump-shift response shows an extra value opening bid (16+HCP) with a strong suit (at least 5
cards, 2/3 top honors) and one of three hand-types:
1) long one-suiter
2) good support
3) balanced or near-balanced
Note:..3: 1m - 2m:
Opener can: (1) play in 3m by bidding it
(2) bid 2NT, nonforcing (NF)
(3) bid a new suit, then stop in 3m
Note:..4: Opener's Splinter Raise
Opener's rebid 1 level above either a jump shift or a forcing reverse is a game-forcing splinter raise.
Note:..5: 1m - 2NT:
Opener's 3m is nonforcing, new suits are forcing.
Note:..6: Reverses
After a one-level suit response, opener's reverse is forcing and promises a rebid below game. The partnership will reach at least game unless responder's next bid is two of his original suit and the cheaper of a fourth-suit bid and two notrump (which are initially defined as preludes to a signoff. In the potentially weak sequences opener, if he can't choose a game contract, can force to game artificially by bidding the fourth suit. With less than game-going values, opener can raise responder's rebid suit (suggesting strong two-card support), bid two notrump, or rebid his first suit. Note that when responder has five cards in his major, support for opener's first suit and enough strength for game he should show his support on the second round rather than repeat his major. A jump raise or jump preference by responder is descriptive (concentrated strength) rather than fast arrival. Responder's jump in the fourth suit is a splinter raise of opener's second suit.
Opener's reverse after a one-notrump response is forcing. Responder's rebids of two notrump, three of opener's first-bid suit, and three of a suit ranking below opener's original suit are all nonforcing.
Thus, responder may have to jump or bid a higher-ranking new suit to create a force. This is no hardship when opener's second bid is below two spades but in cases like one club-one notrump-two spades responder lacks a cheap forcing bid and may have to improvise with three diamonds or three hearts to avoid going past three notrump.
Responder's reverse is forcing to game unless he has passed originally, in which case it creates a one-round force.
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Note:..7: 1m - 1M; 1NT - 2om: New minor forcing
Two of the unbid minor is artificial, forcing, and at least game-invitational strength.
Opener's priorities:
1) show three-card fit for responder's original suit,
2) show four-card length in the unbid major,
3) show a minimum with the cheapest other bid,
4) show a maximum descriptively with anything else.
Responder's next bid is forcing unless it is: 2M, 2NT or a raise to three of the major just bid by opener.
1m-1M; 1NT-3om Natural, weak, does not invite correction
Responder's jump rebid in his own suit, jump preference, and jump in hearts after responding one spade are all invitational actions. To force with similar but stronger hands responder starts with two of the unbid minor.
Note:..8: 1m-1M; 2NT - ?
3C Artificial, opener rebids 3D unless he has 3-card support for responder's major
3D Artificial, shows a fit for opener's minor
1m-1M; 2NT-3C; 3D: responder's bids up to and including three of his original suit are nonforcing
Note:..9: FOURTH SUIT:
A minimum bid of the fourth suit is a strong action but it does not establish a game force unless it is a reverse or comes at the three-level.
When the fourth-suit bid is not a reverse and occurs at the two level, it is forcing for only one round.
If opener continues with two notrump, makes a minimum rebid in his second suit or gives simple two-level preference to responder's first suit responder may pass.
A bid one level above a not-game-forcing fourth-suit bid is natural [at least five-five] and game-forcing, e.g. 1D-1S; 2C - 3H: FG, at least 5S/5H (to invite with the same shape, responder bids the fourth suit cheaply twice).
1C-1D; 1H-2S is ARTIFICIAL, 4TH suit
After a one-level suit response and opener's simple same-suit rebid, responder's reverse or three-level bid in a new suit establishes a game force.
A new-suit bid at the two level that is not a reverse creates a force for only one round; responder may pass if opener bids his own suit a third time or offers simple preference to responder's first suit.
To force with at least five-five, responder jumps to three of his lower-ranking suit. To invite with the same patterns he introduces his second suit at the two level, then repeats it at the three level.
Otherwise, a bid one level above a game-forcing third-suit bid is a splinter.
Note:..10: 1S-1NT; 2C - ? BART
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2D ARTIFICIAL, suggests 5 hearts and usually 2S
2H 6-card heart suit, weak
Note:..11: Slam-bidding Methods, Key-Card Blackwood (KCB) and related issues:
4NT: (a) If an undiscussed but clearly forcing noncompetitive 4NT bid might logically be interpreted as more than one of these alternatives, the priority order of interpretation
is: (1) ace- or key-card-asking convention,
(2) offer of general slam encouragement,
(3) control-showing bid.
(b) If an undiscussed forcing competitive 4NT bid cannot logically be ace- or key-card-asking, it is for general takeout.
In KCB, absent an explicit agreement, the priority order for determining the agreed suit is: the only supported suit; the only shown suit; the most recently shown suit.
When 4NT is KCB, the replies are: 0|3-1|4 [five clubs = 0 or 3 key cards; five diamonds = 1 or 4; five hearts (spades) = 2 without (with) the trump queen].
After a 0|3 or 1|4 reply to KCB, the cheapest forcing bid by the Blackwood bidder is a trump-queen-ask if it is below five of the agreed suit, and the negative reply is a return to the agreed suit.
When 4NT is 6KCB, the replies are similar with trump queen replaced by key queen. 4NT is 6KCB when and only when two suits have been supported.
After a 0|3 or 1|4 reply to 6KCB, the cheapest bid by the Blackwood bidder below five of a raised suit is a queen-ask relating to both raised suits, with replies in steps: one step, no queen; two steps, one queen; three or more steps, two queens.
When 4NT is Blackwood but is neither KCB or 6KCB, or when a bid other than 4NT asks for aces, the replies are 0|3-1|4 [one step = 0 or 3 aces; two steps = 1 or 4; three steps = 2].
A 5NT bid by the Blackwood (or KCB or 6KCB) bidder confirms partnership possession of all the aces (or of all key cards and the trump queen or key queens or equivalent), invites a grand slam, and asks for specific kings outside the agreed suit (in KCB) or outside the raised suits (in 6KCB).
Voids: A reply to an ace- or key-card-ask above the usual range shows a void:
(a) the cheapest void-showing reply shows 2 [or an EVEN number] aces/key cards plus a void; (b)
a higher action indicates one [or an ODD number] ace[s]/key card[s] plus a void and, when possible, indicates the suit of the void.
Exclusion Blackwood (EB): the replies are in steps similar to KCB, but the replier does not count the ace of an excluded suit. The EB interpretation applies to certain jumps that name an excluded suit, and also when a player makes a slam-try, indicates a short suit, receives no encouragement, and then bids 4NT (in which case the short suit is an excluded suit.
(a) When there is interference after an ace- or key-card-ask, the replies are:
(1) at low enough levels, DOPI (double or redouble=0 or 0|3, pass=1 or 1|4, cheapest bid
= 2 or 2 without the trump queen);
(2) at higher levels, DEPO (double=even, pass=odd).
(b) When there is interference after a Grand-Slam Force, the replies are:
(1) at low enough levels, DOPI (double or redouble substitutes for what would have been the cheapest
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bid, pass substitutes for what would have been the second-cheapest bid, the cheapest bid substitutes for what would have been the third-cheapest bid, subject to the logic of the auction);
(2) at high enough levels, DEPO (double=even, pass=odd).
(c) When an artificial slam-try (such as a control-bid or a splinter) is doubled, the weakest action by the next player to speak is a return to the agreed suit (or whatever would have been the weakest action without the double).
Kaplan Control Principles: When there is an agreed suit:
(a) After a slam-try by one partner below four of the agreed suit,
(1) a non-signoff bid or redouble by the other is slam-positive and indicates a specific control;
(2) failure to show a control is slam-negative, but does not deny that control.
(b) After a slam-try by one partner above four of the agreed suit, the other must show any biddable control below five of the agreed suit (and doing so carries no implication of overall extra values).
Last Train: Any time there is only one call that indicates slam interest or further slam interest without raising the partnership's level of commitment, it is a Last Train slam-try, unrelated to the strain named (unless followed by an uninvited further action).
Open suit: When one partner has requested that the other bid slam with at least second-round control of a particular suit (the open suit) regardless of the rest of his hand, this scheme is used for replier's actions: with no control in the open suit, pass or return to (usually five of) the agreed suit; with second-round control, bid six of the agreed suit (or 5NT with the guarded king); with first-round control, control-bid in the open suit (or, with first-round or maximum-possible and an as-yet-unshown control in another suit, control-bid in that suit).
Slow arrival: Except where there is a specific agreement to the contrary, when there is a choice between two game-forcing bids in a particular strain, BWS uses slow arrival (a jump is either stronger than a simple bid or it is a picture bid with a specific descriptive meaning).
Note:..12: 1M-2NT Continuations
Simple new suit shows shortness.
New-suit jump shows a two-suiter.
3M Strongest rebid, balanced
3NT Medium-strength rebid, balanced
4M Weakest rebid, balanced
Note:..13: lebensohl agreements
(2x) - Double - (Pass) - ?
2NT : marionette to 3C,
then, advancer may
(1) pass or bid 3y for lesser hands below opener's suit
(2) bid 3x as a major-suit inquiry with a stopper in opener's suit
(3) /2H opening: 3S is forcing
Non-jump new-suit bid at the three level shows moderate values.
/2H opening: 3S is invitational
Direct CUE is major-suit inquiry without a stopper. Doubler should not bid notrump without full stopper.
Note:..14: (WK 2x) - 2NT - (Pass) - ? or (WK 2x) - Pass - (Pass) - 2NT; (Pass)- ?
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If 2x is a major: all 3-level bids are TRANSFERS (3S=clubs) - transfer into 3x is Stayman.
If 2x is a minor: 3C is Stayman (no Smolen); 3D/3H are TRANSFERS; 3S shows the other minor.
Note:..15: Actions in sandwich position:
Over an opposing opening bid and one-over-one response:
(a) 1NT, two or more of opener's suit, or two of responder's suit is natural;
(b) 2NT shows the unbid suits;
(c) three of responder's suit asks for a stopper in that suit (suggesting a solid suit).
Over an opposing opening and 1NT response:
(a) double is takeout of opener's suit;
(b) a two-level cue-bid is similar to that bid directly over the opening bid;
(c) 2NT shows the two lowest unbid suits.
Over an opposing opening and two-over-one response:
(a) a cue-bid in opener's suit or 2NT is takeout;
(b) a cue-bid in responder's suit is natural.
Over a raise (1x-Pass-2x):
(a) a cue-bid shows majors over a minor, unbid major plus unspecified minor over a major;
(b) a jump overcall is pre-emptive or sacrifice-suggestive.
In these situations, actions by the sandwich-position intervenor have the same fundamental meanings as if made in direct position over responder's call as an opening bid:
(a) pre-emptive opening plus raise;
(b) one-bid plus constructive jump-raise;
(c) one-bid plus pre-emptive jump-raise.
Over opposing artificial raises of a one-bid via a different-suit bid DOUBLE is:
game-forcing splinter : Lead/Sacrifice
non-game-forcing splinter : Lead/Sacrifice
range-showing game-force : Lead/Sacrifice
range-showing limit raise : Takeout
range-showing weak (i.e., single) raise : Takeout
passed-hand fit-showing device : Takeout
other, not individually discussed, artificial raise : Lead/Sacrifice
After an opposing weak two-bid and (forcing) 2NT response, an action by the sandwiched intervenor is analogous to the same action taken directly over the opening bid.
After an opposing pre-empt and a new-suit response (jump or not), a double shows the two unbid suits.
After an artificial semi-positive or positive response to a strong, artificial opening, a double shows the suit doubled.
After (1NT; strong) - pass - (2C; Stayman) - ?, double shows clubs, strength unspecified.
After (1NT; weak) - pass - (2C; Stayman) - ?, double shows general strength.
After (1NT) - pass - (2-level TRANSFER) - ?: (a) double shows the suit doubled; (b) a bid of the
indicated suit is for takeout of that suit.
Note:..16: After Our Takeout Double of a One-Bid
Without competition:
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(1)A raise of a one-level advance shows 4-card support and a four-HCP range beginning one ace above a minimum double.
In competition: When (only) the advance is competitive, the minimum strength for the raise is one ace above minimum. When (only) the raise is competitive, the minimum strength requirement is one queen above a minimum. When both the advance and the raise are competitive, the minimum strength requirement is the takeout-double minimum.
(2)Doubler's strength-showing cue-bid does not promise another bid if advancer bids no higher than two of his original suit, but the cue-bid promises another bid if advancer bids higher than that (but below game). That cue-bid may be used with four-card support for advancer's major suit in a hand too strong for a direct single raise.
(3)After doubler's strength-showing new-suit bid, advancer may correct without showing any high-card values, but only to the next level of his own suit or to an unbid suit that underranks it, and advancer's simple no-trump bid guarantees a stopper in opener's suit.
Third seat competition:
Over redouble: advancer's actions
(a) a new-suit jump is pre-emptive;
(b) when the suit opened is a major, one no-trump is for escape, and a cue-bid is constructive (forcing for one round).
Responder's new-suit bid: advancer's actions
(a) a double is for penalty;
(b) a non-jump cue-bid in opener's suit is natural;
(c) a cue-bid in responder's suit is artificial and forcing.
Note:..17: Competitive Bidding Methods
A. After Our Pre-empt
Vs DOUBLE: Responder's
(a) redouble is strength-showing, suggests playing for a penalty, and creates a force to the next level of opener's suit.
(b) new-suit bid below game is forcing, but lead-directional
(c) jump new-suit bid below game is forcing, fit-showing, lead-directional.
Vs overcall: Responder's
(a) simple new-suit bid below game is forcing, suggesting length (can be raised).
(b) jump new-suit bid below game is forcing and fit-showing.
(c) 2NT is forcing and similar to the same bid made noncompetitively.
When responder raises to game, whether competitively or not, and an opponent bids, opener may only double (indicating maximum defensive potential).
When responder raises below game, whether competitively or not, and an opponent overcalls, opener may not bid and there is no special agreement over whether he may double.
B. After Our 2C Opening
Vs overcall: responder's double shows double-negative strength and a pass is forcing. Opener's double of the overcall shows a balanced hand.
After a negative response to two clubs and an overcall,
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(a) opener's pass is forcing;
(b) opener's double is for penalty.
C. After Our 1NT Opening
(a) A double of a natural two- or three-level overcall is negative, of a higher bid is for penalty.
(b) Over a two-level overcall: lebensohl [two notrump is a puppet to three clubs and responder's rebid below three of overcaller's suit is nonforcing; a direct bid of three of an underranking suit is forcing] applies, with fast denies stopper for cue-bid and three-notrump direct responses versus responder's rebids following a two-notrump response.
An artificial action is treated as though it had been a natural bid in an anchor suit indicated.
(c) A below-game new-suit jump is forcing.
(d) A redouble of an artificial double is strength-showing.
(e) A double of an artificial bid suggests a penalty double of the escape.
(f) After any penalty suggestion: the opening side is forced to 2NT, below-game new-suit bids are forcing, raises and 2NT are not forcing.
(g) A bid in a suit shown by an artificial defense indicates at least a game-invitation and is forcing to 2NT.
(h) Bids in suits not indicated (although possibly bid) by an artificial action have the same meaning as if the interference had been a natural bid in an indicated suit.
1NT -(pass) - 2C -(double) - ?:
opener should evaluate his club holding and:
bid if especially weak, pass if average, redouble if especially strong).
1NT -(pass) - Transfer -(double) - ?:
opener should (a) superaccept with any of the same hand that would have been suitable without interference; (b) accept the transfer with at least 3-card support; (c) redouble rather than pass with significant length and strength in the suit responder bid.
D. After Our One-Level-Suit Opening
Vs an overcall:
(a) a double is negative through three spades;
(b) a simple new-suit bid below game is forcing (by an unpassed hand);
(c) 2NT is natural (invitational) and nonforcing (jump or not);
(d) over a simple overcall: a cue-bid shows a raise with at least game-invitational strength, and a jump cue-bid is a splinter (direct jump-raises are pre-emptive);
(e) 4NT is Key-Card Blackwood (jump or not);
(f) a jump-shift is pre-emptive.
Vs artificial action:
Over a bid showing two fixed suits:
(a) a bid in the remaining suit is nonforcing;
(b) the cheapest cue-bid (actual or virtual) is a limit or stronger raise;
(c) the second-cheapest cue-bid is a one-round force indicating length in the remaining suit.
1M - (pass) -INT - (overcall) - ?: double by opener is for takeout, a double by responder (after two
passes) is for penalty.
After a redouble:
(a) After one of a suit - (double) - redouble - (bid) - ?, opener's pass is forcing.
(b) After one of a suit - (double) - redouble - (pass); - pass - (bid) - ?, responder's pass is forcing.
E. After Our Minor-Suit Opening
Over an artificial action:
Over a Michaels cue-bid (both majors): (a) a bid in the unbid minor is nonforcing; (b) the cheapest virutal cue-bid shows a game-invitational or stronger action in the unbid minor; the second-cheapest virtual cue-bid shows a game-invitational or stronger raise of opener's minor
Over a bid showing two fixed suits: (a) a bid in the remaining suit is nonforcing; (b) the cheapest cue-bid (actual or virtual) shows a game-invitational or stronger action in the remaining suit; the second-cheapest cue-bid (actual or virtual) shows a game-invitational
or stronger raise of opener's minor.
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